台灣主廚 演繹風土料理 身世與技藝在口中相互輝映

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2017 / 9月

文‧蘇俐穎 圖‧莊坤儒 翻譯‧Phil Newell


近年來,不少青年主廚或從國外海歸,或歷經完整的高檔餐廳鍛鍊,不約而同選擇開設風格融合的餐廳,使用的是西餐的烹飪技藝,風味概念則取材自故鄉的滋味,在這一波被稱為「西餐裡的台灣味」的風潮裡,隱藏著料理人難以迴避的命題:我是誰?從哪裡來?要往哪裡去?


 

才在今年開了土耳其咖啡館「Kopi Ibrik/一步一步來咖啡豆賣所」的阿仙說:「過去,談到土耳其咖啡,沒有人覺得可以和精品咖啡發生關聯。只有土耳其咖啡也開始使用精品咖啡的語言,開始探討萃取率、咖啡豆的品種與產地後,才引起關心咖啡的人矚目。」

在料理的世界也是相同的道理,餐飲發展至今,西餐成為公認的國際性語言。此刻又搭上由北歐料理所引領,重視風土、時節的潮流,世界各地的主廚,紛紛把自身的DNA、味覺經驗,透過在地食材,貫徹在西餐的形式中,讓客人無須透過外部知識援引,可以直接由感官去體驗地方料理,乃至菜系的源頭,「現在就連印度菜、波斯菜也在做這件事。」阿仙說。

有根據、有邏輯的創作菜餚

這批經過歷練的廚師,嘗試在法國菜中加入台菜、中菜元素,或者創造出符合台灣人飲食習慣的西式料理,好比以早期「貓下去西餐快炒小館」引領,以大塊肉類搭配義大利麵、燉飯等澱粉的主食;在料理的呈現、味道的融合上,精緻度與完整度都非過去流行一時的創意料理可比擬。阿仙說:「這既不是法國菜,而該說是,有法國菜根底做出比較台式的創作菜餚,我把它們歸類叫『新台式西餐』。」

「創作菜餚」與「創意料理」,最大的差別是什麼?

  阿仙談到了巴黎的yam’Tcha(飲茶)與四川的喻家廚房兩間餐廳。「yam’Tcha的女主廚Adeline Grattard有法菜底子,又做過粵菜,兩者演化於無形,讓人一吃就知道是她的料理。」至於喻家廚房,「主廚先把傳統菜做得很好,才開始做自己的東西。」以一道代表性的「毛筆酥」為例,這道製成毛筆造型,乍看儼然像分子料理的菜餚,但只要走進廚房,就能發現,料理用具不過是傳統的斷面砧板和菜刀,所謂的工夫,在這裡便嶄露無遺。

「差別就在於『根基』。」阿仙指出,「創意料理往往只是提出一個idea,大多很難吃;創作菜餚,是創造外另把一個概念執行出來。」在專業的餐飲領域裡,沒有一蹴可幾的捷徑,只有反覆的實作與實驗,在時間的考驗中累積成紮實的根底。阿仙強調:只有以根基作為依歸,添加的東西才能有邏輯、有根據,否則就只是在瞎做,沒有一個依循。

想家了,才會去做這件事

除了創辦於2013年12月,開創這一波融合菜濫觴的Hero Restaurant,阿仙另提到了Akame、樂福利等幾間餐廳,不約而同,都不在高端餐飲的一線戰區台北。他說:「也許是你想家了,才會去做這件事。」這些主廚經歷完整的餐飲歷練,就像洄游的魚群離開喧囂城市,回到故鄉開了一間完全屬於自己的餐廳,在菜單、食材、食器上,也更全面且細緻地展現出個人本色與深度。

曾在Rialto Cucina Italiana、De Loin Restaurant等老字號西餐廳待過的程翔珈,與在餐廳外場工作的妻子陳淳珍,一同回到桃園,整修家宅開了樂福利。在這個暖調的小館子,主廚為我們端出一道紹興酒乾瑤柱鮮蝦細扁麵,其中運用3種基醬,除了較常見的法式蝦醬與雞高湯,另將乾瑤柱浸泡在紹興酒中一夜後,取出蒸熟撥絲,再重新浸入,成為整道菜中最主要的一條味覺線。

另外一道手撕香料東坡肉與花菜花生漢堡,炙燒過的東坡肉香氣四溢,保留享用漢堡料理時的痛快感,但大塊肉經過片薄再重新堆疊,吃來口感豐潤細膩,也沒有令人困窘的卡牙纖維。

由於陳淳珍特別偏愛老物件,樂福利的菜餚多盛裝在家傳餐具,或者從各處費心蒐購的古董器皿中,別具一番風情。餐後提供台灣茶作結,使用由陳淳珍爺爺傳下來的壺具,紫砂器皿將台茶風味潤飾得更為渾厚飽滿,再從西洋花草茶中擷取靈感,客人可以自由添入玫瑰花、洋甘菊、薄荷品飲,時隱時現的香草氣息,增添不少樂趣。

為什麼使用中菜風味的概念?程翔珈回答:「因為我喜歡吃中菜。」一路走過中餐廳、日本料理、buffet等不同餐飲形式的程翔珈,雖然後來朝向西餐的方向精進,但母親手路菜的柔軟記憶,已成了他的料理中伏流的底蘊。

追求與自然融為一體

2016年10月,從南投移師台中的Hero Restaurant,加入了蕭淳元在高雄餐旅大學就讀時的同窗林凱維,成為雙主廚制,整個團隊更加完整。無獨有偶,由中餐科班出身的兩人,從大學就確定了未來要走向融合菜的方向。蕭淳元經歷宜蘭渡小月、L’atelier de Joël Robuchon、日本寶格麗餐廳、小笠原伯爵官邸等餐廳的洗禮;林凱維則在畢業後前往法國博庫斯廚藝學校(Institut Paul Bocuse)精進,早先在中山招待所擔任主廚時便已受到矚目,「中山招待所時需要用高級食材去呈現,沒有強調在地食材,但有些菜藏著中餐的味道在裡面。」林凱維補充道:「現在的狀態更像是完全體。」

在當季菜單中,以一道本島蝦雲林白蘆筍野生烏魚子百合泥最受阿仙青睞。概念來自中菜的百合蘆筍蝦仁,但不同於傳統中菜,將各種食材風味揉合在一塊後直接表現;西餐講究食材分別調理,經過火炙半生熟的胭脂蝦、水煮後奶油煎香的白蘆筍、鹽水煮過打成細泥的綠蘆筍,以及傳統方式處理的綠竹筍等,尊崇食材本身的鮮味,讓不同的質地在口中相互輝映,使整道菜充滿清新華斐的訊息。

Hero Restaurant在南投等地還有專屬菜園,整個團隊都會參與耕種、收成。阿仙特別提到蕭淳元欣賞的兩位外國主廚:法國星籍主廚Michel Bras,以及被米高樂(Gault Millau)評鑑為「北陸最佳主廚」的谷口英司。立足日本富山,L’évo的靈魂人物主廚谷口英司提出「前衛的地方料理」這個詞,與Hero Restaurant致力的方向若合符節,谷口英司由法國菜出發,結合富山當地物產,並且與在地工藝家合作,創作出脫俗的地方性菜餚。

而2.0版的Hero Restaurant,歷經創業初期的摸索,以及多場餐會的洗鍊,加上資源的提升,完整度上都已更朝蕭淳元心中的理想邁進。當日甜品英雄豐仁冰中,穿插在雞蛋冰淇淋、酸梅湯冰沙、西谷米之間的,還有一顆木杉葡萄,這是來自同樣立足中部的威石東酒莊提供的台灣釀酒葡萄,據聞是本年度收穫季的最後一串;另外,使用南投陶藝家林永勝的陶器,以Hero Restaurant的小規模,恰好可以更有機、緊密地連結地方上的美好。

至於最核心的菜呢?從開幕才兩週旋即登門造訪,後來陸陸續續參加過多場餐會的阿仙評點:「相較以前,在一口的完成度上更高了。」他又特別指出菜單中最後一道清水鹹濕米百六豬三寶滷肉飯,「以前還有義大利麵、燉飯的澱粉作主食,現在把飯放到最後,更多去強調表現魚、肉等食材,最後才有澱粉,比較偏像日式的形式。」

期許5年以後的料理高度

台灣當代風土料理的氣候漸漸在形成,在這個最好也最壞的時代,有人專注在高檔料理中台灣風味的線索,也有人追逐主廚客座餐會的風雅。但專業料理人都應當捫心自問,做這件事的初心,才能走得長遠,「等過了這個過渡期,大家會比較清楚自己在做什麼、想做什麼。」阿仙說。

而在這個還在演化的階段裡,如何融合中西方養分,形成自我的風格,並且把自身的故事置入其中,這些都是台灣主廚當前的艱難挑戰。阿仙鼓勵程翔珈、陳淳珍,可運用老件、茶飲上的亮點,讓富有台灣風味的菜色與台茶混搭,可因此吸引更多外地人來品嘗。他再度提到yam’Tcha,裡面每一道餐點都與茶搭配的特殊形式,「也許可以再更勇敢一點,讓大家看到你的堅持,形成你的特色。」

而如何權衡中西方的比重,達到個人風格的完美均衡,從風味到視覺都能具有識別度,則是Hero Restaurant的重點課題,「這是一個值得玩味的時期,等到過了這個時期之後,會有一個很精彩的東西,是超越西餐的。」5年、10年之後,這批台灣主廚會到達哪種高度?讓我們屏息以待。

英文

A New Fusion Style: Taiwanese Chefs Create Downhome Cuisine

Lynn Su /photos courtesy of Chuang Kung-ju /tr. by Phil Newell

In recent years a number of young chefs—perhaps on returning from overseas or after comprehensive training in a high-class restaurant—have independently made the same decision: to open a fusion-style restaurant. They use the cooking techniques of Western cuisine, but their flavor concepts draw on the tastes of their homeland. In this movement to develop Taiwanese takes on Western cuisine, there are hidden questions that chefs cannot avoid: Who am I? Where do I come from? Where do I want to go?


 

Ascend, owner of the Kopi Ibrik coffee shop, which opened just this year, says: “In the past, if you mentioned Turkish coffee, no one would think it had anything to do with specialty coffee. But now people have started using the language of specialty coffee to talk about Turkish coffee, and to explore such things as its extraction yield, the types of coffee beans used and their places of production, so it is beginning to draw the attention of coffee aficionados.”

The same logic applies in the culinary world. Food and beverages have developed to a point where Western cuisine is a generally recognized international language. But at this point, led by Nordic cuisine, there is a trend toward local style and seasonal cooking. Chefs around the world are drawing on their own cultural DNA and flavor experiences, and using local ingredients to express these within the format of Western cuisine. This enables diners to directly experience local cooking through their own senses, and from there to understand the source of a particular cuisine, without having to draw on outside knowledge.

Innovative dishes with logic and foundations

Today there is a group of rigorously trained chefs who are experimenting with adding Taiwanese or Chinese ele­ments to French cooking, or with creating Western-style foods that meet the dietary habits of Taiwanese. The “creative cuisine” that was popular for a while in the past cannot compare in terms of presentation, combination of flavors, elegance, or completeness, says Ascend. “I categorize these innovative dishes as ‘Taiwanese-style Western cuisine.’”

But what is the biggest difference between such “innovative dishes” and “creative cuisine”?

“The difference is in the ‘foundation,’” says Ascend. In the world of professional cooking, there are no shortcuts, only repeated practice and experimentation, so that a person can build a solid foundation that has stood the test of time. Only then can you add things in a logical, grounded way; otherwise you are just acting blindly.

You will only do this if you miss home

Besides the Hero Restaurant, which opened in December of 2013 and launched this wave of fusion cuisine, Ascend also mentions other representative restaurants, including Akame and Lovely Casual Dining Room. Independently, they have decided not to set up in Taipei, on the front lines of high-end ­restaurants. He says: “Maybe people do this because they miss home.” These chefs have been through rigorous training, but they have ­decided, like a school of migrating fish, to leave the noisy city and return to their hometowns to open restaurants that are entirely their own, in order to fully express their personal characters and depth.

Nicola ­Cheng worked in established Western restaurants like Rialto Cucina Italiana and De Loin Restaurant, while his wife Joelle Chen worked on the service side at De Loin. Together they moved back to Tao­yuan and remodeled the family home into the Lovely Casual Dining Room. In this warm little space, the chef prepared for us a dish of dried scallops and fresh shrimp, prepared with Shao­xing wine, on linguine. In it he used three basic sauces. Besides the not-uncommon French-style shrimp sauce and chicken broth, he marinated the dried scallops in the Shao­xing wine overnight, removed them to steam and shred them, then marinated them again, which provided the main strand of flavor running through the dish.

Joelle Chen is especially fond of old things, so ­Lovely’s foods are mostly served on tableware passed down in her family, or on antique plates. The meal wraps up with Taiwanese tea, served using a tea set passed down from Chen’s grandfather. Taking inspiration from Western herbal teas, guests are welcome to add rose petals, chamomile, and mint. The wafting herbal fragrances add a great deal of pleasure to the meal.

Why use the concepts of Chinese-style cuisine? Nicola ­Cheng responds: “Because I like Chinese food.” Gentle memories of his mother’s signature dishes have become the hidden stream underlying his meals.

Seeking oneness with nature

When the Hero Restaurant moved to Tai­chung from Nan­tou in October of 2016, ­Hsiao Tsun-yuan, the original owner and chef, brought in Lin Kai-wei, who had been a classmate of his in the Department of Chinese Culinary Arts at National Kao­hsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, to create a dual head chef system, making the whole team more complete. The two had both decided even in university that in the future they would go in the direction of fusion dishes. ­Hsiao has been through a ­baptism of restaurants including Du ­Xiao Yue Taiwan Seafood Cuisine in Yi­lan, L’Atelier de Joël Robuchon in Tai­pei, and the Bulgari restaurant in Tokyo. Lin, on the other hand, after graduation went to the Institut Paul Bocuse in France for advanced training. Even early on in his career, when he was head chef at the Yet-sen Mansion restaurant in Taichung, he was attracting attention. “When I was at Yet-sen, you had to use high-grade materials to show your stuff. There was no emphasis on local ingredients, but some dishes had a Chinese flavor to them.” Lin adds: “Today it’s more comprehensive.”

Of the seasonal dishes at Hero, the one that really catches Ascend’s attention is one made with local prawn, Yun­lin white asparagus, wild mullet roe, and lily bulb purée. The basic idea comes from the Chinese dish of lily bulb, asparagus, and shrimp, but unlike in the traditional dish, where all the flavors are blended together, Western cuisine is particular about preparing ingredients separately, and respecting the flavors of the ingredients themselves. Allowing all kinds of textures and characters to mix in the mouth makes the entire dish carry a message of freshness and richness.

The Hero Restaurant has its own vegetable farms in Nan­tou and elsewhere, and the whole team participates in the planting and harvesting. Ascend makes a point of mentioning the two foreign chefs so much appreciated by ­Hsiao Tsun-yuan: the Frenchman Michel Bras and the Japanese Eiji Ta­ni­gu­chi, head chef at L’Évo in To­yama, Japan. Ta­ni­gu­chi started out from French cuisine, but combined it with local ingredients from To­yama and worked with local handicraft artists, to create refined local dishes.

Version 2.0 of the Hero Restaurant has felt its way through the initial teething troubles that any new ­business faces, and has passed the test of several large dining events. With the upgrade in its resources, things have moved much closer to the ideal that is in ­Hsiao Tsun-­yuan’s mind. For example, the dessert on the day of our visit was ice cream topped with Musann Blanc grapes. These are wine grapes from the Weightstone vineyard and winery, which is also based in central Taiwan. We later heard that they came from the last bunch of this year’s ­harvest. In addition, Hero uses ceramics made by Nan­tou ceramicist Lin Yong­sheng.

What about the core dishes? Ascend gives the following evaluation: “Compared to the past, the flavors are much more rounded.” He also points especially to the last item on the menu: minced pork on rice. “In the past they had starches like Italian pasta and risotto as main courses, but now they serve the rice last, in order to place more emphasis on the fish and meat ingredients. This is more like the Japanese format.”

Anticipating a culinary peak in five years

The climate for contemporary downhome Taiwanese cuisine is gradually taking shape. In these best and worst of times, some chefs are focusing their attention on injecting Taiwanese flavor into haute cuisine, while others are pursuing the role of short-term guest chefs. But culinary professionals should look inward and realize: only with true motivation for doing this can you go far. “After waiting through this transitional period, everyone will be clearer about what they are doing and what they want to do,” says Ascend.

In this stage when things are still evolving, the main challenges for Taiwan chefs today are how to blend the strong points of Chinese and Western cuisines, give form to their own style, and incorporate their own stories into their food.

“This is a period when it is worth pondering what we are doing. When this period passes, there will be something amazing, something that transcends Western cuisine.” Five or ten years from now, what heights will this group of Taiwanese chefs have reached? We wait with bated breath.

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